Reducing retrieval time modulates the production effect

AbstractMemory is reliably enhanced for information read aloud compared with information read silently—the production effect. Three preregistered experiments examined whether the production effect arises from a time-consuming recollective process operating at test that benefits items that were produced at study. To accomplish this, participants were required to respond within a short deadline under the assumption that a time-consuming recollective process would be less able to operate when less time is available. If so, the production effect under speeded responding instructions should be reduced relative to a standard nonspeeded condition. Results generally supported this prediction. However, even under speeded responding instructions, there was a robust production effect, potentially suggesting that other, more rapid, processes also contribute to the production effect.

Return to previous page